Mushrooms are worth eating and the benefits. In unicellular fungi multiply asexually by forming buds and sexually forming askus spores. And on multiseluser mushrooms formed from a series of cells forming a thread like a cotton called Hifa. By multiplying with asexuals, he breaks the threads of hyphae and forms asexual spores, namely zoospores, endospores and conidia. By means of sexually passing fusion between male and female nuclei, the askus spores are formed, aka sidium spores.
Mushrooms can only grow with an environment that has a temperature with the appropriate humidity. Then the pH is not more than 7 and the environment is oxygenated even though the oxygen is low.
Of the 70,000 kinds of mushrooms that exist in the world. There are several fungi that can be consumed and are also dangerous to consume. 35 of them have been cultivated and only 8 of 35 are commercialized on an industrial scale. The following are some types of fungi that are not slightly cultivated and are suitable for consumption.
Types of Mushroom Types:
1. Jamam Oyster
Oyster mushrooms have the scientific name Pleurotus ostreatus, this mushroom has several uses that are good for the health of the body. Some of the benefits of oyster mushrooms are preventing anemia, increasing the immune system, being able to fight cholesterol, preventing bad bacteria from growing in the body and being able to prevent tumors and cancer from occurring.
This type of fungus is a fungus that is not consumed a little and is the most famous fungus among the people of Indonesia, the basic reason for oyster mushrooms can be easily found in not a few places. Oyster mushrooms are not cultivated in Indonesia with sterile wood powder and then packed in a white plastic bag and placed at a humid room temperature.
Oyster mushrooms have a hood shape similar to shellfish with the upper stage having a basin in the middle, this mushroom is white to cream.
2. Jamur Kancing (Button Mushroom)
Button mushrooms are another type of mushroom consumption. Called the name of the mushroom because this mushroom has a shape similar to clothing buttons. This mushroom has a round shape with pure white, cream and brown. Button mushrooms have the Latin name Supayaicus bisporus has no use. Each grain of large size mushrooms has a sodium content, free of fat and rich in vitamins (such as vitamin B and pottasium) not only that button mushrooms have a high mineral content and are low in calories and have sweet mass.
In addition to having not a few benefits obtained, not a few countries in the world cultivate this type of mushroom because this mushroom has a price that is slightly expensive so it makes it a lucrative business opportunity.
3. Jamur Merang
The mushroom has the scientific name Volvoriella Volvaceae, is a type of fungus that has a total production of 16% in the world, this fungus is not a little cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, a kind of countries in Southeast Asia and some European countries.
Merang mushrooms can easily be found in the market and marketed in a fresh state, aka it has been held in place in a glass or plastic bag. The mushroom has a texture of lemur and a sweet taste, so it is not slightly liked. The content available in each one mushroom contains 3.2 grams of protein and will increase to 16 grams in a dry state. Then 51 mg calcium and 223 mg phosphorus and 105 kj calories and 0.9 gr fat.
Not a few uses obtained from consuming mushrooms, including low cholesterol, useful for diabetics, preventing cancer cells, good for the diet and increasing the body’s immune system, can strengthen bones, prevent low blood aka anemia, very good for people with heart disease , different from free radicals and the latest is right for consuming vegetarians.
4. Shitake mushrooms / toadstools
Shitake mushrooms are mushrooms that are not consumed by Asian people, especially in Japan and China. Asians know this mushroom as Chinese Black Mushroom. Since 2000 this fungus has been known as a good fungus for consumption.
About 900 years ago the Chinese population had cultivated this mushroom in a traditional way and started commercializing it in the mass way around 1940 in the land of Sakura Japan.
Several uses are available when consuming shitake mushrooms, among others, to facilitate blood circulation, restore fatigue, as a source of energy and relieve liver disorders.
5. Jamur Kuping (ear Mushroom)
Ear mushrooms consist of three types, namely white ear mushroom (Tremella fuciformis), black ear mushroom (Auricularia polytricha) and red ear mushroom (Auricularia auricula-judae). Of the three types, Indonesians usually consume black mushroom.
For Indonesians this fungus is easily found especially in nature which usually grows on rotten stems.
The use of ear fungus is to cope with hypertension, anemia, treat hemorrhoids and reduce heat sickness from the effects of burns.
6. Jamur Enokitake
This mushroom has the Latin name Flammulina velu tipes. Genetically known as winter mushroom. Because it is usually not a bit widespread in the snow-temperate world. And only grows on the surface of the stem of the celtis sinensis tree.
Enokitake mushrooms that grow freely in nature have two types of colors, namely brown to pink. While the white enokitake mushroom is a fungus that is protected by sunlight.
This fungus is at least slightly used in traditional Chinese medicine, for example, to treat difficult bowel movements.
7. Maitake Mushrooms
This mushroom is rare and the high price can reach the price of pure silver. Because it’s rare that people call this mushroom with mushrooms dancing. So for mushroom hunters will dance when they find it. The meaning of maitake itself is dancing.
Prof. Dr. Hiroki Nanba, a mushroom researcher from the land of sakura, speaks of the use of mushroom maitake, there are two. First as a cancer drug and the drug of choice for people with HIV / AIDS.